Convict Histories

The Leighton Buzzard Burglars

By Irma Walter, 2021.

This story demonstrates the difficulties involved in researching the lives of some of the professional thieves sent out to Western Australia during the convict era, due to the widespread habit of concealing their true identities through the use of various aliases for each crime. This was done to avoid having cumulative sentences bestowed upon them. During the 19th century the task of identifying these multiple offenders was extremely difficult, and policemen were sometimes rewarded with a bonus payment for their diligence.

Three accomplished thieves named John Saunders, Charles Marshall, and George Parker (born ‘James Punt Borritt’) were charged in 1854 with breaking into a dwelling house at Leighton Buzzard, a small town in Bedfordshire, and stealing a large quantity of jewellery, watches, etc., to the value of £800. The jeweller Matthews claimed that his two dogs had been stupefied by means of some white powder to keep them quiet during the break-in.

Lewis Myer(s), a London Jewish dealer, was also arrested and charged with receiving the goods. Marshall and Saunders, with previous convictions, were found guilty and were sentenced to 20 years’ transportation, while Myers received a lesser sentence of 14 years.

Despite strong suspicions, the case against George Parker was dismissed due to a lack of evidence against him.

Saunders, Marshall, and Myers were transported to Western Australia onboard the William Hammond, arriving on 29 March 1856.

Their associate George Parker (real name James Punt Borritt), was convicted of a later crime in March 1856, under one of his many aliases, ‘John Jones’. As a result, he followed the other three to Western Australia two years later onboard the Nile, arriving on 1 January 1858 (as Reg. No. 4564).

[See the story of John Jones (Reg. No. 4564), aliases James Punt Borritt and George Parker, on this website.]


John Saunders (c1823 – ?) (Reg. No 3899)

We know little about this man’s background and cannot be sure whether John Saunders was his birth name. It is possible that he was born at Cashel in Tipperary, Ireland.[1] One record has his first term of seven years under the name Pettitt.[2] Another has him being born c1813.[3]

John Saunders (aliases Morris, M’Guire, Dwyer, Wood, John Petty) arrived in Western Australia on the William Hammond on 29 March 1856, along with partners-in-crime Lewis Myers (Reg. No. 3781) and Charles Marshall (3815).

They were convicted on 9 March 1854 with the extensive robbery of plate, watches and jewellery at Leighton Buzzard in Bedfordshire, after breaking and entering a jeweller’s premises and stealing valuables worth £800. Saunders and Marshall carried out the robbery and were sentenced to 20 years’ transportation. Lewis Myers, a dealer, was found guilty of receiving stolen goods and received a lesser sentence of 14 years. [A fourth man, George Parker (real name James Punt Borritt), was acquitted on the grounds of insufficient evidence.]

John Saunders was described as a hatter, though London police stated in court that they had never seen him in regular employment, instead keeping company with criminals. At his house police found housebreaking tools including a jemmy, files, picklocks and skeleton keys, as well as putty for making skeleton keys, wrapped in a linen roller.

To Western Australia

On arrival in Western Australia in 1856, John Saunders was described as a labourer, married with one child, height 5’7”, with brown hair, dark hazel eyes, oval face, sallow complexion, middling stout. His reading and writing skills were imperfect and his religion was Protestant. He had the initials E.W. tattooed on his left arm and cupping marks on his chest.[4] His character was recorded as Good while in separate confinement and at Dartmoor Prison, and Very Good during the voyage.[5]

His marks for behaviour in WA were excellent between 1856 and 1858, when he was appointed as a constable in charge of a works party on 16 February, and was released on Ticket of Leave at Champion Bay on 21 November 1858.[6] On 17 October 1861 he was awarded his Conditional Pardon on receipt of certificates.[7] This was forwarded to the Resident Magistrate on 12 December 1861.

It appears that John Saunders left Western Australia sometime in the 1860s and returned to England. Using the alias ‘John Morris’ he was arrested in June 1865 for house-breaking in Reading. When suspicions were aroused as to his identity, the Governor of Bedford Gaol was brought in to see him and immediately identified him as John Saunders.[8]

John Morris, (aka Saunders, alias McGuire, alias Dwyer), appeared in the Reading Spring Assizes on 28 February 1866, indicted for being feloniously at large before the expiration of a sentence of twenty years which had been passed upon him at the Lent Assizes for Bedford in 1854. When recognised, Saunders readily admitted the charge, saying that he had been transported in the William Hammond from Dartmoor Prison to Western Australia, where he had received his Ticket of Leave on 21 November 1858, then his Conditional Pardon at Busselton on 19 December 1861. He declared that he had been pardoned by Governor Kennedy and received permission to leave the colony. When no ship was available at Albany, he made his way to Fremantle, where he paid his passage as far as Singapore, intending to go to South Africa. Instead he ended up back in England, claiming that on the way home the ship was lost, along with his papers. He declared that he was unaware that he was committing a crime by returning to England.[9]

In spite of his plausible defence, ‘John Morris’ was found guilty of being at large before the expiration of his previous term of transportation and was sentenced to one month’s imprisonment with hard labour, to be followed by eight years’ penal servitude.[10] Although he faced another heavy sentence, John Morris was not transported out of the country this time, but served his time in British prisons.

Some interesting documents concerning this man have been made available on the Find My Past website. The following item gives more personal details about him. At this stage his next-of-kin is listed as Jane Morris, of 36 King St, Union Street, Boro’ Road, London. On another occasion his daughter was named as ‘Sarah’, of the same address –

Penal Record for John Morris, alias McGuire, Saunders and Dwyer.[11]

The following entries were attached to the above form –

As John Morris, received at Reading Prison on 30 June 1865, kept in Separate Confinement, where his conduct was Good.’

On 12 January 1867 removed to Millbank and placed in Separate Confinement, where his prison trade was shoemaker.

On 28 March 1867 taken to Dartmoor Prison and put to Public Works. He made little progress at school.

On 10 June 1870 at Southwark Prison in London.[12]

On 6 March 1867 Morris was penalised for talking, with punishment of one day’s exercise (on a treadmill?) plus the loss of 18 marks towards remission. On 6 February 1868, while in Millbank Prison, he submitted a petition for consideration and pardon, but this was rejected due to there being no grounds for such action.[13]

In 1870 the Governor of Dartmoor Prison took the unusual step of writing to Henry Wakeford, the newly appointed Comptroller General of Convicts in Western Australia, seeking information about the identity of one of the inmates in his prison, named John Morris, alias McGuire. The reply was as follows –

The Governor, Dartmoor Prison

Sir, I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 10th November 1870 and in reply to acquaint you that no man named John Morris has been received here under the sentence that you mention but a man named John Saunders alias Petty who was sentenced at Bedford, on 9th March 1854 to 20 years Transportation for “Burglary” was received here by the convict ship “Wm Hammond” from Dartmoor Prison in 1856. His Reg. No. at Dartmoor was 2784, in this Colony it was 3899. –

His original Caption was accidentally burned in a fire which occurred in this office in 1862. 

I have the honor to be,


Your most obedient Servant

Henry Wakeford

Comptroller General.[14]

[Note: Henry Wakeford was Comptroller General of convicts in WA from 1867 to 1872.]

Morris petitioned for clemency again on 19 April 1871, but was rejected on there being no sufficient grounds for such action. It appears that he was still in Dartmoor Prison in 1872, when a record shows that on 6 March that year, ‘John Morris’ (Prisoner No. 8297) had sent a letter to his daughter Mrs Martin, of 36 King Street, Union Street, Bow Road, Southwark. Three months later on 4 June it was recorded that he had received a letter from ‘Daughter Sarah Morris’.

Shortly afterwards on 15 June 1872 John Morris was removed to Licence.[15] This meant that he was released to Ticket of Leave, but under strict instructions that he needed to carry his Licence with him at all times, and if he broke the law or was found to be keeping bad company, he would be taken back into custody to serve out the remainder of his previous term. A Dartmoor Prison medical record at the time of discharge described his health at this stage as ‘delicate’, and gave a possible place and date of his birth –

Medical Record for John Morris, 1872.[16]

An Incorrigible Offender – A new identity.

It is hard to credit that this man, known as ‘Saunders/Petty/McGuire or Morris’, by then living in Southwark with his long-suffering daughter, would have actively resumed his criminal activities, to the extent of again being back in the docks within eighteen months under yet another alias, this time as ‘John Wood’.

This occurred on 24 November 1873 in the Central Criminal Court in London, when as ‘John Wood, alias Pellitt (or Pettitt), Saunders or Harris’, aged 51, a dealer by trade, he was convicted along with William Lovett of larceny and housebreaking, and was sentenced to 15 years imprisonment, plus three years of police supervision. The fact that he had acquired two new aliases within such a short period indicates continued criminal activity. A Pentonville Prison record dated 24 August 1874 gives his religion as Protestant, and shows his previous convictions and the aliases known to have been used by this man. His convictions were listed as follows –

Seven years in August 1839.

Twenty years in March 1854.

Eight years in February 1866.[17]

The following Newgate Prison record, showing the tattoo ‘E.W.’ on his left arm, would have helped prison officials identify his true identity.

Newgate Prison record for John Wood, alias Morris, McGuire, Saunders, & Dwyer.[18]

The following extract gives details of the sentencing at the Central Criminal Court on 24 November 1873 of William Lovett, aged 40, (top record) and his co-offender John Wood, aged 51, (lower record), listing his current and previous crimes under various aliases. [An attempt to trace his first recorded crime as Pettitt in 1839 has so far been unsuccessful.]

Central Criminal Court record for William Lovett (top) and John Wood, 1873.[19]

His medical report in 1873 shows that John Wood (or Saunders, etc.,) was by that time in poor health, with a hernia, rheumatism and heart disease making him capable of only light work. He admitted to having served three previous terms of Penal Servitude and one shorter sentence. He stated that he was born in Surrey and gave his address as 34 King St, Borough Lane in Southwark, Surrey, indicating that he had been living with his married daughter Sarah Martin.[20]

His relationship with the people at this address is a little confusing. From 1873 John Wood received an average of two letters per year from his sister (?) Sarah Martin of 36 King Street, Lancaster Street, Boro’ Road. After a visit was allowed on 22 June 1874, the Governor of Pentonville Prison was sent confirmation by the Assistant Commissioner of Police that Mrs Marten (sic), of 36 King Street, an ‘aunt’ of prisoner John Wood, was a respectable woman. Later, in 1881, it was a niece Elizabeth (Lizzie) Martin, of 4 Lancaster St, who was his main contact, up until the time of his release in 1884. John paid one penny for a stamp to send replies, with his letters being signed off by the prison schoolmaster.[21]

The following is a record of the various prisons where ‘John Wood’ served time before being released on licence in 1884. It is of interest that he worked as a picker (probably employed at picking oakum, tedious work done mostly in prisons, which involved separating the strands of old rope for use in sealing the lining of sailing ships.)

Prisons record for John Wood, 1873 – 1884.[22]

 Prison photo of John Wood, 1879.[23]

John Wood’s medical record while in prison shows him entering the prison hospital on several occasions. In 1875 he was suffering from heart palpitations and had an irregular heartbeat. This condition was treated with digitalis in 1878. In that year and again in 1882 he was treated with dry cupping to the chest, followed by bed rest.

A careful work record was kept, with points earned towards remission and a small sum of money earned each week. His conduct in prison overall was good. As Pentonville prisoner No. 2160, John was granted several requests over the years. He was given permission to write a letter in 1873, was allowed a visit and was permitted to write a letter in 1874. He was granted the right to have tea in 1876, boiled meat in 1879, and gruel in 1883.

On 30 August 1884 he was given permission to write a petition to the Director, praying for consideration of his care, as he was in ill health and was by then 67 years of age. [If this were true, it would have made his birth date circa 1817.]

On 19 September 1884 the petition was received at the Director’s Office. On 2 October 1884 a Licence of Freedom was issued under the Queen’s name to John Wood (or Morris, etc.), currently in Parkhurst Convict Prison. Strict rules would apply, otherwise the freed prisoner would be obliged to return to prison to serve out the remaining four years and one month of his term. Preparations were made for his release, with written permission given to allow his ‘liberty clothing’ to be made on the premises. He would also be allowed to take his spectacles with him on discharge. He sought permission to be put in a special class, and this was agreed to by the Director. On 15 October he was released.[24]

Notification of release on licence, 1884.[25]

[The St Giles Christian Mission, established by the Baptist Church in 1860, provided accommodation and care for the destitute and also ex-prisoners.[26]]

It is not known whether this man remained at the Mission, or under which name he chose to live out his remaining days. We do know that he had lived an eventful but worthless life, and over the years cost the British Penal System a lot of money for his maintenance in various prisons.


Charles Marshall (c1823 – 1868) (Reg. No. 3815)

Charles Marshall was well-known to London police. It was revealed at his trial that he had been living at Leighton Buzzard for some three months before the robbery, working as a painter and residing at the Swan Inn.[27] He was also known as an itinerant cutler. When arrested he had about £6 or £7 worth of new furniture in his room.[28] It was probably he who communicated with Saunders over the possibility of stealing from the premises of local jeweller Mr Matthews.

At the time of his arrest Charles Marshall was easily identified by his luxuriant carroty whiskers, but in court he appeared with a dark beard and was suspected of having dyed his whiskers with boot polish or ink in order to change his appearance. Orders were given for him to be taken him away to clean his face and he reappeared in the court with his carroty whiskers on display.[29]

He served a total of one month six days in Bedford Prison, then two months two days at Millbank, where his behaviour was recorded as ‘Bad’.[30] Another character record includes the following – ‘In Separate Confinement – B, At Portland Prison – G, and during the Voyage – Ex. Six months for 3 class.’

From Portland Prison he was taken onboard the convict ship William Hammond on 8 December 1855, with his two companions Myers and Saunders. On arrival in Western Australia, Marshall was described as aged 31, a plumber, single, height 5’6¼”, sandy hair, grey eyes, an oval face, slight build, with a broken little toe on his left foot and a mole on his left arm. His reading and writing skills were described as imperfect. Another document has him listed as a house painter with two previous convictions, married, with a wife living in London and no permanent abode.

Charles Marshall’s health was poor. Soon after his arrival in WA he was diagnosed on 27 April 1856 with chronic bronchitis and emphysema.[31] A note on one medical form completed by the surgeon at Fremantle Prison on 19 April 1857 says – ‘Lungs impaired. Solitary confinement – spent 15 months at Pentonville – bad on the whole. Latterly at Bedford 4 months, and Millbank 7 months.’[32]

Once in WA, convict records show that Marshall’s conduct improved, and on 1 August 1857 he was appointed as a constable in charge of a work gang. On 5 May 1858 he earned a special recommendation to W Ramsey at Minninup. His behaviour from 1856 – 1858 was excellent, but on 16 February 1859 it was recorded that he had forfeited three months’ remission, reason unknown. He was on Ticket of Leave from 20 June 1859.[33] That year Marshall was making the most of his opportunities, self-employed at his trade –


Plumbers, Glaziers,

Plain and Ornamental Painters,

Captain Scott’s Yard,


Few records of Marshall are available, apart from a marriage in Fremantle to Lydia Redding (or Reading) in 1861 (Reg. No.1700), and the birth of a son Charles in 1862 (Reg. No. 6630).[35] The following newspaper notices indicate that Charles Marshall was self-employed in the Fremantle area over a number of years:


Dissolution of Partnership.

THE undersigned hereby give notice, that the Partnership hitherto subsisting between them is this day dissolved by mutual consent. All persons having any claim against the firm are requested to send their accounts to Mr. Charles Marshall, High-street, Fremantle, on or

before the 10th December next.




Witness— J. H. DUFFIELD.

Fremantle, Nov. 17, 1862.[36]






Upholder, Upholsterer, & Cabinet Manufacturer.

All articles sent from the above Establishment and Manufactory are warranted to be recherche in style, pattern, and fashion; first class in workmanship, seasoned in materials, and for utility, durability, and strength, unsurpassed in the Colonies.

Every description of UPHOLSTERY; every variety of turning and turned articles,

and all kinds of polishing and varnishing, completed on the premises by skilled work-men and artisans. Produce taken in exchange. Cash purchasers are liberally treated with a large assortment of elegant manufactures always on show and sale.[37]

Charles Marshall appears to have led a crime-free life as a family man and businessman in the Colony of Western Australia. In poor health from the time of his arrival, he passed away in 1868, aged around 43 years.

The Bicentennial Dictionary of Western Australians has an entry as follows:

MARSHALL, Charles, b. 1823, d. 19.8.1868 (Frem.) (?expiree), son of Charles, arr. possibly 29.3 .1856 per William Hammond. m. 26 .12.1861 (Frem) Lydia READING b. 1839 (Eng) d. 20.4.1924. dtr. of Henry & Sophia (of Cornwall England).

She arr. 25.5.1858 per Emma Eugenia. She m. 2nd Alfred WESTON. Chd. Alice b. 1861 (Frem. C/E). Lydia Emily, b. 1864, Charles Henry, Albert.

Fremantle. Upholsterer 1868. Employed 31 T/L men 1862-1868.[38]


Lewis Myers (c1832 – ?) (Reg. No. 3781)

Lewis Myers was associated with Charles Marshall, John Saunders and John Parker in the Leighton Buzzard robbery at Bedfordshire, when property was stolen during a break-in from the premises of a jeweller, Mr Matthews. Myers was charged with receiving stolen goods from the robbery and was sentenced to 14 years, while the burglars Saunders & Marshall received 20 years. John Parker (James Punt Borritt) was acquitted through lack of evidence.

Myers was a Jewish dealer living at 177 Southwark-bridge Road in London. Over eight years he had risen from the humble role of hawker of steel pens to become a dealer in a large quantity of gold and silver watches, plate and jewellery. It was found that after the robbery Myers had disposed of a quantity of the stolen goods to another dealer. At the time of his arrest he had a considerable amount of cash and cheques in his possession. When the police arrived at his premises his wife handed over two watch caps and a gold chain, as well as a key to Myers’ black bag, which contained silver thimbles, watch guards and a gold seal.[39]

Myers, Saunders and Marshall arrived at Fremantle on 29 March 1856 on the William Hammond. Lewis Myers was described as aged 24, a jeweller, married with two children, height 5’5½”, with dark brown hair, dark brown eyes, oval face, a dark complexion, middling stout in build, and no marks.  On 1 August 1857 he was discharged to North Fremantle.[40]

An ambitious and canny individual, Myers was determined to start his own business in Western Australia as soon as he earned his freedom. By 1861 he had a hawker’s licence and was quick to defend the reputation of hawkers, following the publican of a newspaper article that year which denigrated the trade –


To the Editor of the Perth Gazette.

Sir, – Under the heading of “Local Intelligence”, in this day’s “Inquirer”, there appears a paragraph stating that a person had been fined for hawking without a license, and “that it seems to be the general opinion that to permit hawking, licensed, or unlicensed, is merely to permit the vending of stolen goods, as articles purloined in one district are disposed of in another.”

May I, through your columns, ask the Editor of the Inquirer to point out one instance of a licensed hawker in this colony having been convicted of receiving stolen goods?

This serious statement is likely to do much injury to a class of dealers who, in other colonies are recognised to be very desirable, and who have proved themselves to be worthy of confidence in this colony.

I cannot understand why an individual hawking without a license, should be compared with one who is licensed, and who, consequently, is looked upon as a responsible man, and one whose character is of course inquired into before being granted a license.

I presume this illiberal statement in the Inquirer has originated in the mind of the writer and is not the opinion of the public.

I am, Sir,

Your obedient servant,


Licensed Hawker.

Fremantle, August 28, 1861.[41]

In the early ‘60s Myers went into partnership with Fremantle storekeeper David Pollock. By 1863 Myers was considering leaving the colony, probably keen to be re-united with his family –


THE partnership heretofore subsisting between the undersigned, David Pollock and Louis Myers, as storekeepers, having this day been dissolved by mutual consent, notice is hereby given that all claims against the late firm are requested to be sent in at once for settlement, and that all amounts due to the firm are expected to be paid immediately, as Mr. Myers is about to leave the colony.

Witness our hands this seventh day of September, 1863.



H. Martenson,

Witness to the signatures of both parties.[42]

Instead of leaving the colony, Myers resumed the life of importer and dealer. As his trade increased his name featured regularly in coastal shipping reports. In 1859 he made several trips to and from Bunbury and had regular consignments of goods arriving by ship in the 1860s. In March 1860 he travelled to Bunbury in the Wild Wave and again in the Zillah in December. He returned from Bunbury in the Amelia in February 1861, in July and again in April. In January 1863 he received 28 cases of goods from London onboard the Palestine. In December 1863 at King George’s Sound, 31 casks of oil and 74 boxes of tobacco were transhipped at King George’s Sound by him. Cargo transhipped at Albany in April 1864 included 101 cases of tobacco in the name of L. Myers. In June 1864 he imported five cases of goods from London on the Strathmore.

Myer donated £1 to the Greenough Floods Appeal in 1864. By this time he had built quite a reputation as a businessman with links to the local Jewish community. However his small business empire came crashing down that year when he was charged with feloniously receiving from another Jewish expiree named Theodore Krakouer some money orders stolen from a butcher in the Champion Bay area –

The Quarterly Criminal Sitting of the Supreme Court will take place on Wednesday next, the 6th Instant. There are several cases for trial, but none of any magnitude or importance, the most interesting, probably, to the general public, being that against Krakouer and Myers for robbery of a considerable amount of money at Champion Bay a few weeks ago. The former of these accused persons is in custody, but the latter has been admitted to bail.[43]

Preparations for the trial dragged on over several months, with witnesses being brought down to Perth from Champion Bay and accommodated at considerable expense to the Crown –

THEODORE KRAKOUER and Louis Myers, the former charged with robbing the house of Thomas Phillips, of Champion Bay district, butcher, of £490 in money-orders and cheques, and the latter of receiving some of the orders with a guilty knowledge, are again remanded until the Crown can succeed in hunting up further evidence against them. One excursion of the kind was made a few weeks ago, and another is, we presume, contemplated. Meanwhile the witnesses brought from Champion Bay, and detained here for some weeks to give their evidence before the committing Magistrate, are sent home again, to be recalled at some future date. Krakouer was committed for trial at the last Sessions, but the Crown advisers, thinking the case not yet safe, discharged the prisoner, and arrested him again at a few yards from the lock-up door. The previous ceremonies had therefore to be repeated, and may be again gone through three months hence.

Myers had attempted to leave the Colony by the Beaver, but the master of that vessel went off without him, taking only his passage money of £50 and a quantity of tobacco of about the same value. The enormous expense to which the Colony is put by the necessary investigation of offences like this robbery forms a heavy item on the per contra side of the transportation account; and shews that, although we may acquire a considerable Imperial Expenditure, we have also to pay heavily for the advantage. It may, however, deserve the consideration of the Government whether these investigations could not be more economically carried on.[44]

Considering that it was well known that Lewis Myers had already made one attempt to leave the colony, it appears foolish on the part of authorities not to have immediately taken steps to detain him. There would have been a lot of red-faced officials around Perth when it was discovered that Myers had successfully fled WA to Batavia onboard the Guyon.[45]

One consolation was that Myers, by not turning up in court, had forfeited not only his £500 recognisance, but his guarantor, a Jewish lady named Adelaide Isaacs, had also lost an equivalent sum, thus ensuring that the high costs facing the Crown over the trial were covered.[46]

The final embarrassment came when Krakouer faced court in October and was found not guilty of having stolen various orders for the payment of monies, the property of Thomas Phillips, at the Wheal Fortune Mine on the 6th May.[47]

No more is known of Lewis Myer and his whereabouts after fleeing the colony of WA in 1864.


[1] UK National Archives, Prison Registers, Home Office & Prison Commission, Male Licences, PCOM3, Piece No. 675,

[2] UK National Archives, Calendar of Prisoners in Newgate Prison in 1873, Series HO140, Piece No 23.

[3] UK National Archives, Institution & Organisations, Prison Registers, Series PCOM3, Piece No. 675.

[4] Note: Cupping therapy is an ancient practice still used today by some therapists, said to enhance the circulation of blood and remove toxins and waste from the body. Cupping marks have occasionally been found in the physical description of other convicts.

[5] Convict Department Registers, Character Book for Nos 3640 – 4432 (R19)

[6] Ibid.

[7] Convict Establishment Stamp Books 1857 – 1864 (S1 – S3)

[8] Bedfordshire Times, 10 March 1866.

[9] Hertsfordshire Express, 10 March 1866.

[10] Ibid.

[11] National Archives, Prison Registers, Home Office & Prison Commission, Male Licences, PCOM3, Piece No. 675,

[12] Ibid.

[13] Ibid.

[14] Ibid.

[15] Ibid.

[16] Ibid.

[17] UK National Archives, Pentonville Prison Register of Prisoners, Series PCOM2, Piece Number 75.

[18] UK National Archives, Institution & Organisations, Series PCOM3, Piece No. 675.

[19] UK National Archives, Calendar of Prisoners in Newgate Prison in 1873, Series HO140, Piece No 23.

[20] UK National Archives, Institution & Organisations, Prison Registers, Series PCOM3, Piece No. 675.

[21] Ibid.

[22] Ibid.

[23] Ibid.

[24] Ibid.

[25] Ibid.

[26] London Metropolitan Archives,

[27] Suffolk Chronicle, 31 December 1853.

[28] Northampton Mercury, 24 Dec. 1853.

[29] Northampton Mercury, 18 March 1854.

[30] Pentonville Prison Records, England and Wales, Crime, Prisons and Punishment, 1770 – 1935, at find my

[31] Convict Establishment, Fremantle Casual Sick, Casual Sick Registers 1850 – 1857, Changes to Regimen, 1858 – 1877, (CS1 – CS3)

[32] Convict Establishment Medical, Daily Medical Journals, 1854 -1865 (M14 – M16)

[33] Convict Department Registers, Character Book for Nos 3640 – 4432 (R19)

[34] Inquirer, 17 August 1859.

[35] WA Department of Justice,

[36] Inquirer, 19 November 1862.

[37] Inquirer, 8 March 1865.

[38] Rica Erickson, The Bicentennial Dictionary of Western Australians, University of Western Australia Press, Nedlands, 1987, p. 2084.

[39] Bucks Herald, 18 March 1854.

[40] Convict Establishment, Receipts and Discharges, 1855-1859 (RD1 – RD2)

[41] Perth Gazette and Independent Journal of Politics and News, 30 August 1861.

[42] Perth Gazette, 18 September 1863.

[43] Perth Gazette, 1 July 1864.

[44] West Australian, 21 July 1864.

[45] Perth Gazette, 7 October 1864.

[46] Ibid.

[47] Ibid.